Enoxaparin is associated with lower rates of thrombosis, kidney injury, and mortality than unfractionated heparin in hospitalized COVID patients

Mar 9 2021

Originally Posted in medRxiv

Oct 11 2020

Abstract: Although anticoagulants such as unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH, e.g. enoxaparin) are both being used for therapeutic mitigation of COVID associated coagulopathy (CAC), differences in their clinical outcomes remain to be investigated. Here, we employ automated neural networks supplemented with expert curation (Augmented Curation) for retrospectively analyzing the complete electronic health records (EHRs) of 671 hospitalized COVID-19 patients administered either enoxaparin or unfractionated heparin, but not both. We find that COVID-19 patients administered unfractionated heparin but not enoxaparin have higher rates of mortality (risk ratio: 2.6; 95% C.I.: [1.2-5.4]; p-value: 0.02; BH adjusted p-value: 0.09), thrombotic events (risk ratio: 5.7, 95% C.I.: [2.1, 33.9], p-value: 0.024), acute kidney injury (risk ratio: 5.5; 95% C.I.: [1.2-17.7]; p-value: 0.02; BH adjusted p-value: 0.10), and bacterial pneumonia (risk ratio undefined; 95% C.I.: [1.0, 292]; p-value:0.02; BH adjusted p-value:0.10), compared to patients administered enoxaparin but not unfractionated heparin. Notably, even after controlling for potential confounding factors such as demographics, comorbidities, admission diagnosis, initial ICU status, and initial level of oxygen support, the above differences between the enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin patient cohorts remain statistically significant. This study emphasizes the need for mechanistically investigating differential modulation of the COVID-associated coagulation cascades by enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin.

 

Authors:

Colin Pawlowski, AJ Venkatakrishnan, Christian Kirkup, Gabriela Berner, Arjun Puranik, John C. O’Horo, Andrew D. Badley, Venky Soundararajan

nference, Cambridge, MA 02142
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905
 
Correspondence: Venky Soundararajan (venky@nference.net)

Affiliations:

nference-logo-publications-1

mayo-logo-3-3-2-Mar-05-2021-08-48-36-72-PM

Copyright:
The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under a CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.