Abstract: Although anticoagulants such as unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH, e.g. enoxaparin) are both being used for therapeutic mitigation of COVID associated coagulopathy (CAC), differences in their clinical outcomes remain to be investigated. Here, we employ automated neural networks supplemented with expert curation (Augmented Curation) for retrospectively analyzing the complete electronic health records (EHRs) of 671 hospitalized COVID-19 patients administered either enoxaparin or unfractionated heparin, but not both. We find that COVID-19 patients administered unfractionated heparin but not enoxaparin have higher rates of mortality (risk ratio: 2.6; 95% C.I.: [1.2-5.4]; p-value: 0.02; BH adjusted p-value: 0.09), thrombotic events (risk ratio: 5.7, 95% C.I.: [2.1, 33.9], p-value: 0.024), acute kidney injury (risk ratio: 5.5; 95% C.I.: [1.2-17.7]; p-value: 0.02; BH adjusted p-value: 0.10), and bacterial pneumonia (risk ratio undefined; 95% C.I.: [1.0, 292]; p-value:0.02; BH adjusted p-value:0.10), compared to patients administered enoxaparin but not unfractionated heparin. Notably, even after controlling for potential confounding factors such as demographics, comorbidities, admission diagnosis, initial ICU status, and initial level of oxygen support, the above differences between the enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin patient cohorts remain statistically significant. This study emphasizes the need for mechanistically investigating differential modulation of the COVID-associated coagulation cascades by enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin.
Colin Pawlowski, AJ Venkatakrishnan, Christian Kirkup, Gabriela Berner, Arjun Puranik, John C. O’Horo, Andrew D. Badley, Venky Soundararajan